Treatment of Psoriasis with Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Psoriasis is an incurable immune-mediated disease, which affects approximately 2% of the world’s population. Current treatments, including newly emerged biologic agents, have some limitations. In this study, they report two cases of psoriasis vulgaris treated by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). In these two cases, both of the patients remained relapse free over periods of several years.
Neural differentiation and potential use of stem cells from the human umbilical cord for central nervous system transplantation therapy
Umbilical cord blood stem cells have demonstrated efficacy in reducing lesion sizes and enhancing behavioral recovery in animal models of ischemic and traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recent findings suggest that neurons derived from cord stroma mesenchymal cells could alleviate movement disorders in hemiparkinsonian animal models. In this study, they review the neurogenic potential of umbilical cord stem cells and discuss possibilities of their exploitation as an alternative to human embryonic stem cells or neural stem cells for transplantation therapy of traumatic CNS injury and neurodegenerative diseases.
Discarded Wharton’s Jelly of the Human Umbilical Cord: A Viable Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capability of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neural cells. With these multiple capabilities, MSCs have been highly regarded as effective transplantable cell source for regenerative medicine. Recent evidence demonstrates that Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are potential transplantable cells for treatment of devastating diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Their use in cell therapy will be an integral addition to the field of regeneration. WJ-MSCs have a multitude of benefits such as their high proliferation rate, lower doubling time, and ability to function with non-immune-suppressed animals.
Human Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Stem Cells Display Immunomodulatory Properties and Transiently Improve Rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Umbilical cord matrix or Wharton’s jelly-derived stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are an easily accessible source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. This study shows that WJ-MSCs have trophic support properties and effectively modulate immune cell functioning both in vitro and in the EAE model, suggesting WJ-MSC may hold promise for MS therapy.
Role of Nonmuscle Myosin II in Migration of Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
It is the promise of regeneration and therapeutic applications that has sparked an interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Following infusion, MSCs migrate to sites of injury or inflammation by virtue of their homing property. To exert optimal clinical benefits, systemically delivered MSCs need to migrate efficiently and in adequate numbers to pathological areas in vivo. However, underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for MSC migration are still not well understood. The data in this study suggests that nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) acts as a regulator of cell migration and adhesion in Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs).
Lung mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate the inflammatory profile of Cystic Fibrosis epithelial cells
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic stem cells, residing in most tissues including the lung. MSCs have been used in therapy of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis (CF), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the main beneficial effects reside in the anti-inflammatory potential of the released extracellular vesicles (EVs). Recent reports demonstrate that EVs are effective in animal model of asthma, E.coli pneumonia, lung ischemia-reperfusion, and virus airway infection among others. The general significance of this study suggests EVs could be a novel strategy to control the hyper-inflamed condition in Cystic Fibrosis.
Interaction of Wharton’s jelly derived fetal mesenchymal cells with tumor cells
Wharton’s jelly (umbilical cord matrix) was proved to be a rich source of MSCs and they can be isolated by non-invasive methods such as Ficoll density gradient and antibodies coupled magnetic beads without any ethical issues. This review summarizes the potential interaction of fetal mesenchymal stem cells with tumor cells and their use in clinical protocols.
COPD Improves with Stem Cell Therapy
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive form of lung disease ranging from mild to severe and characterized by a restriction of airflow into and out of the lungs that makes breathing difficult. Two main forms of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. There is currently no cure for COPD, but treatment options such as stem cell therapy can prevent more damage and improve the patient’s quality of life.
Stem cell therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current status of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials
In summary, the approaches discussed for regenerative therapies have demonstrated positive effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) animal models and have been safe in clinical trials. However, greater effort must be taken to develop approaches that will lead towards a curing solution to COPD patients.
Stem cell therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. How far is it to the clinic?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that has a major impact worldwide. The currently-available drugs mainly focus on relieving the symptoms of COPD patients. However, in the latter stages of the disease, the airways become largely obstructed and lung parenchyma becomes destructed due to underlying inflammation. The inappropriate repair of lung tissue after injury may contribute to the development of disease. Studies suggest that cell-based therapies and novel bioengineering approaches may be potential therapeutic strategies for lung repair and remodeling. In this paper, they review the current evidence of stem cell therapy in COPD.
The clinical use of regenerative therapy in COPD
Regenerative or stem cell therapy is an emerging field of treatment based on stimulation of endogenous resident stem cells or administration of exogenous stem cells to treat diseases or injury and to replace malfunctioning or damaged tissues. Current evidence suggests that in the lung, these cells may participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration after injury. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cells could allow repairing and regenerate the damaged tissue present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by means of their engraftment into the lung.
Concise Review: Clinical Prospects for Treating Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Regenerative Approaches
Cell therapies using various stem cells have been extensively evaluated. The lung is one of the easiest organs in which to instill exogenous cells because cells can be applied through both the airway and circulation. In addition, most of the intravenously instilled cells are trapped within the pulmonary circulation; therefore, the efficacy of cell delivery is naturally high.
Stem cell therapy: the great promise in lung disease
Lung injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by loss of lung elasticity, small airway tethers, and luminal obstruction with inflammatory mucoid secretions. The use of adult stem cells to help with lung regeneration and repair could be a newer technology in clinical and regenerative medicine. In fact, different studies have shown that bone marrow progenitor cells contribute to repair and remodeling of lung in animal models of progressive pulmonary hypertension.
Current Status of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases
Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the 3rd leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed.
Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches
The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialized group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodeling and organ dysfunction. Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation
Rapid repair of the denuded alveolar surface after injury is a key to survival. The respiratory tract contains several sources of endogenous adult stem cells residing within the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neuroendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, and within the alveolar epithelial surface, which contribute to the repair of the airway wall. Bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells circulating in blood are also involved in tracheal regeneration. However, an organism is frequently incapable of repairing serious damage and defects of the respiratory tract resulting from acute trauma, lung cancers, and chronic pulmonary and airway diseases. Therefore, replacement of the tracheal tissue should be urgently considered. The shortage of donor trachea remains a major obstacle in tracheal transplantation. However, implementation of tissue engineering and stem cell therapy-based approaches helps to successfully solve this problem.
Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases
As a self‐repair mechanism, living organisms have stem cells that are attracted to sites of injury. Chronic injury as well as aging could exhaust and impair stem cell reparative capacity as well as diminish number of available stem cells. The mechanism(s) by which alterations in the homeostasis of stem cells pools are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases is unknown. If stem cell exhaustion and aging is the cause of morbid states, stem cell‐based therapies will be able to prevent and treat them. Restoration of stem cells has shown promising therapeutic benefits for certain lung pathologies. Particularly, the immunomodulatory capacity of bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cell (B‐MSC) has been shown to be beneficial for lung diseases with exacerbated inflammatory responses. However, a generalized use of B‐MSC in chronic lung diseases must be considered with caution, and careful studies are still required to establish safety and efficacy of such use.
Lung regeneration using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells
Respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension and lung fibrosis, are yet a major challenge in the world and they result in irreversible structural lung damage. Lung transplantation as the only therapeutic option face some major challenges like graft rejection and cancer, arising as a result of immunosuppression. A low survival rate faced by lung transplantation patients is presently limited to approximately 5 years. Lungs shortage therefore calls for a mechanism that would increase the availability of suitable organs for transplantation. In this review, we give an update on the use of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) as an optimal source for lungs scaffold re-cellularization, due to their limitless accessibility and possibility for proliferation and differentiation. Further studies will be required in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM), especially shifting our focus towards AFMSCs as a cell source for this regeneration.
Stem cell therapy for lung diseases: From fundamental aspects to clinical applications.
This review summarizes the recent advances in stem cell treatments and the research efforts conducted through the application of stem cell therapy for respiratory system diseases. In particular, researchers have used animal models to gather data about treating lung injury by stem cell transplantation. This review concentrated on the findings about route, timing and adjustment of cell transplantation dose, optimum stem cell type selection and potency marker of cells as therapeutic agents.
Adult stem cells in the treatment of autoimmune diseases
The past decade has seen the introduction of many agents, especially biologics, which have allowed a more successful control of AD manifestations. However, the elusive aim of tolerance induction has not yet been achieved. It could be that through harnessing the complex and multifaceted potential of cellular-based therapies, especially HSCT, a ‘resetting‘ of auto-aggressive immune reactions while maintaining protective immunity will be possible. In addition, the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs combined with their immunological privilege and seemingly low toxicity may offer a new strategy for controlling and protecting vital organs from inflammatory, destructive autoimmune reactions.
Treatment of severe autoimmune disease by stem-cell transplantation
Transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells — cells capable of self renewing and reconstituting all types of blood cell — can treat numerous lethal diseases, including leukaemias and lymphomas. It may now be applicable for the treatment of severe autoimmune diseases, such as therapy-resistant rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Studies in animal models show that the transfer of haematopoietic stem cells can reverse autoimmunity, and several mechanistic pathways may explain this phenomenon.
A lethal autoimmune disease succumbs to stem cells
In this study, they review how stem cell transplants can help people to survive a rare and deadly form of the autoimmune disease scleroderma.
Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells Infusion in Spinal Cord Injury: Engraftment and Beneficial Influence on Behavior
Open-field test scores of spinal cord injured rats treated with human cord blood at 5 days were significantly improved as compared to scores of rats similarly injured but treated at day 1 as well as the otherwise untreated injured group. The results suggest that cord blood stem cells are beneficial in reversing the behavioral effects of spinal cord injury, even when infused 5 days after injury. Human cord blood-derived cells were observed in injured areas, but not in non-injured areas, of rat spinal cords, and were never seen in corresponding areas of spinal cord of non-injured animals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that cord blood-derived stem cells migrate to and participate in the healing of neurological defects caused by traumatic assault.
Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Have Neurovascular Tropism and Improve Diabetic Neuropathy
In this study, they show that the transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) restored the vascularity and function of diabetic nerves, supporting the hypothesis that neural vascularity is pathophysiologically associated with the development and reversal of diabetic neuropathy (DN).
Multipotent Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord: Cord Is Richer than Blood!
The identification of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sources that are easily obtainable is of utmost importance. Several studies have shown that MSCs could be isolated from umbilical cord (UC) units. However, the presence of MSCs in umbilical cord blood (UCB) is controversial. A possible explanation for the low efficiency of MSCs from UCB is the use of different culture conditions by independent studies. In this study, they compared the efficiency in obtaining MSCs from unrelated paired UCB and UC samples harvested from the same donors.
Life‐Sparing Effect of Human Cord Blood‐Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Acute Kidney Injury
This study concluded that in a murine model of acute kidney injury (AKI), human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (hCB‐MSC) treatment promotes kidney regeneration and prolongs survival better than any other cellular approach attempted so far. These effects appear to be mediated by a paracrine action of hCB‐MSCs on tubular cells involving lowering oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. These data indicate that hCB‐MSCs have to be considered as one possible future option for cellular therapy of AKI in humans.
Human Umbilical Cord‐Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Left Ventricular Function, Perfusion, and Remodeling in a Porcine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia
This is the first study to provide evidence that intracoronary delivery combined with multiple intravenous infusions of umbilical cord‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC‐MSCs) improves left ventricular (LV) function, perfusion, and remodeling in a large animal model of chronic myocardial ischemia. In the present study, we observed neither tumor nor teratoma formation in human UC‐MSC‐transplanted animals, and no sustained ventricular arrhythmia or anaphylaxis was observed. Because these cells can be isolated from medical waste, expanded, banked, and administered to patients at any time without immunological rejection, human UC‐MSCs might be an ideal cell source for cardiac cell therapy and hold promise as an off‐the‐shelf product.
Intravenous Infusion of Umbilical Cord Blood‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Phase Ia Clinical Trial
This is the first phase in a study of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients that evaluated the safety and tolerability of a single intravenous infusion with human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs) and with cell numbers of up to 1 × 108, revealing an acceptable safety profile. Conclusions regarding efficacy in phase I trials are limited, and although evaluation of disease activity was not the primary objective of this study, a single infusion of hUCB‐MSCs effectively reduced the mean DAS28 at week 4. Considering favorable safety profiles, intravenous infusion of hUCB‐MSCs may constitute a therapeutic option for patients with RA, who are refractory to or intolerant of methotrexate (MTX). There is a wide array of opportunities for future clinical studies with different hUCB‐MSC infusion strategies in which safety profiles should be carefully monitored and outcome measures further refined for optimized effectiveness evaluations.
Therapeutic potential of allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells transplantation for lupus nephritis
Animal and human studies have suggested the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, they present the results of compassionate MSC treatments for three SLE patients to provide the proof of concept for a randomized and controlled clinical trial.
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Based Therapy in Systemic Sclerosis: Rational and Challenges
The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to positively influence processes such as immunosuppression, angiogenesis and inflammation generated a lot of interest and enthusiasm from clinicians and researchers alike. It is apparent that many questions remain unanswered, however what is becoming clear is that MSCs-based therapy should considered as a safe and potentially efficient therapeutic option in the management of advanced stage of systemic sclerosis (SSc).
The Use of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutic Agents for the in vivo Treatment of Immune-Related Diseases: A Systematic Review
In this systematic review, the treatment of many types of immune-related diseases was conducted through the administration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Positive results were usually reported and attributed to the paracrine effects of molecules secreted by hMSCs on immune cells. In conclusion, despite the need for further studies, the treatment of immune-related diseases through the administration of hMSCs is progressively ceasing being only a promising possibility and becoming a reality.
Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate experimental autoimmune cholangitis through immunosuppression and cytoprotective function mediated by galectin-9
In summary, the present study shows thatHuman umbilical cord–derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) exert profound inhibitory effects on inflammatory responses to alleviate liver injury in experimental autoimmune cholangitis mice. Furthermore, UC-MSCs inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell responses as well as aberrant chemokine activities through Gal-9–mediated immunosuppression. Additionally, the induction of Gal-9 in UC-MSCs is mediated by the STAT and JNK signaling pathways. The results of this study provides novel insights into the clinical application of UC-MSCs in the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC).
The Beneficial Effect of Human Amnion Mesenchymal Cells in Inhibition of Inflammation and Induction of Neuronal Repair in EAE Mice
Accumulating evidence showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origins, including adipose-derived, bone marrow-derived, and umbilical cord-derived, could attenuate the disease progression in EAE animal models. Furthermore, autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs transplantation and allogeneic umbilical cord-derived MSCs transplantation for the treatment of MS have been proved safe and effective in clinical trials, which showed that treatment improved the course of the disease, reduced the inflammatory response, and promoted neuroprotection.
TGF-β and mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine, autoimmunity and cancer
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine and for the treatment of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Importantly, MSCs have emerged as an important contributor to the tumor stroma with both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects.
Modulation of autophagy as new approach in mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy
In this study, they review the current literature describing mechanisms by which modulation of autophagy strengthens pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in animal models of multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, diabetic limb ischemia, myocardial infarction, acute graft-versus-host disease, kidney and liver diseases. Obtained results suggest that modulation of autophagy in MSCs may represent a new therapeutic approach that could enhance efficacy of MSCs in the treatment of ischemic and autoimmune diseases.
Therapeutic Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been intensively studied and applied in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Recently, their immune modulation functions make them as attractive potential approaches for autoimmune disease treatment. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one type of chronic autoimmune diseases with multi-organ damaged by the immune system. Although current available treatments are effective for some patients, others are refractory for these therapies. The immuno-modulatory and regenerative characteristics of MSCs make them as one promising candidate for treating SLE.
Cell therapies for refractory rheumatoid arthritis
Cell-based therapies have become the focus, attracting more attention due to their potential for remission induction. Several immune-regulatory cell types, such as haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells have been defined as novel targets.
Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in systemic lupus erythematous, a mesenchymal stem cell disorder
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have demonstrated defects such as aberrant cytokine production. Moreover, impaired phenotype, growth and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs from patients with SLE in comparison to healthy controls have been reported. Therefore, it is hypothesized that SLE is potentially an MSC-mediated disease and, as a result, allogeneic rather than autologous MSC transplantation can be argued to be a potentially advantageous therapy for patients with SLE.
Hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for severe and refractory systemic lupus erythematosus
Recently, growing evidence suggests that the functions of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are disrupted in SLE pathology. And HSC or MSC transplantation (HSCT/MSCT) can offer an effective and safe therapy for the severe SLE patients, resulting in disease clinical remission and improvement of organ dysfunction.
The protective effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function: A comparative study
A higher level of expression of anti-apoptotic and antioxidant enzymes was noted in the ovaries of groups treated with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSCs). These parameters were enhanced more when mice were treated with hUCMSCs for 1 month than when they treated with hUCMSCs for 2 weeks. IV was better able to restore ovarian function than MI. These results suggest that both methods of transplantation may improve ovarian function and that IV transplantation of hUCMSCs can significantly improve ovarian function and structural parameters more than MI transplantation of hUCMSCs can.
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells improve the reserve function of perimenopausal ovary via a paracrine mechanism
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell which are isolated from the umbilical cord of newborns. hUCMSCs have great therapeutic potential. This experimental study was designed in order to investigate whether the transplantation of hUCMSCs can improve the ovarian reserve function of perimenopausal rats and delay ovarian senescence.
Intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in dilated cardiomyopathy rats
Stem cells provide a promising candidate for the treatment of the fatal pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on the cardiac function of a DCM rat model.
Long term effect and safety of Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on type 2 diabetes
The findings of the present study suggested thatWharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) infusion may effectively ameliorate hyperglycemia, improve islet β-cell function and reduce the incidence of diabetic complications over a sustained period of time. Despite the fact that WJ-MSC infusion does not appear to attenuate insulin resistance, WJ-MSC infusion may have therapeutic potential as a novel agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Long term effect and safety of Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on type 2 diabetes
Cellular therapies offer novel opportunities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of infusion of Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) on T2DM.
Mesenchymal stem cells in tissue repair
The advent of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies for clinical therapeutics has been an exciting and new innovation for the treatment of a variety of diseases associated with inflammation, tissue damage, and subsequent regeneration and repair. Application-based ability to measure MSC potency and fate of the cells post-MSC therapy are the variables that confound the use of MSCs therapeutics in human diseases. An evaluation of MSC function and applications with attention to detail in the preparation as well as quality control and quality assurance are only as good as the assays that are developed. This study reviews some of the in vitro and in vivo assays for MSC function and activity and their application to the clinical arena.
Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord express preferentially secreted factors related to neuroprotection, neurogenesis, and angiogenesis
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising tools for the treatment of diseases such as infarcted myocardia and strokes because of their ability to promote endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis via a variety of secreted factors. MSCs found in the Wharton’s jelly of the human umbilical cord are easily obtained and are capable of transplantation without rejection. In this study, they isolated MSCs from Wharton’s jelly and bone marrow (WJ-MSCs and BM-MSCs, respectively) and compared their secretomes.
Therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA. This study evaluates the potential immunosuppressive effects of human UC-MSCs in RA.
Stem cell delivery of therapies for brain disorders
The blood brain barrier (BBB) poses a problem to deliver drugs forbrain malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders. Stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used to delivery drugs or RNA to the brain. This use of methods to bypass the hurdles of delivering drugs across the BBB is particularly important for diseases with poor prognosis such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
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